15. MISCELLANEOUS.

15.1 Agency. Neither Party is, nor shall be deemed to be, an employee, agent, co-venturer, or legal representative of the other Party for any purpose, except as expressly set forth herein. No Party shall be entitled to enter into any contracts in the name of, or on behalf of the other Parties, nor shall either Party be entitled to pledge the credit of the other Parties in any way or hold itself out as having the authority to do so.

 

15.2 Assignment. Except as expressly provided in this Agreement, neither Party may assign any rights or delegate any duties under this Agreement to any Third Party without the prior written consent of the other Party; provided, however, that (a) Licensor may freely assign its right to receive any payments hereunder without such consent of Licensee, (b) in the case where either Party seeks to assign this Agreement as a whole to an Affiliate or to a Successor in connection with a Change of Control of such Party or of that part of such Party’s business to which this Agreement relates, such consent shall not be unreasonably withheld, delayed, or conditioned, provided that such Party provides written notice to the other Party of such Change of Control and such Successor agrees in writing to be bound as such Party hereunder. This Agreement shall be binding upon and inure to the successors and permitted assignees of the Parties and the name of a Party appearing herein shall be deemed to include the names of such Party’s Successors and permitted assigns to the extent necessary to carry out the intent of this Agreement. Any assignment or transfer not in accordance with this Section 15.2 shall be null and void.

 

15.3 Further Actions. Each Party agrees to execute, acknowledge and deliver such further instruments, and to do all such other acts, as may be necessary or appropriate in order to carry out the purposes and intent of this Agreement.

 

15.4 Notices. All notices and other communications hereunder shall be in writing and shall be deemed to have been given: (a) when personally delivered or sent by confirmed facsimile or email (with hard copy to follow); (b) one (1) Business Day after sent by reputable overnight express courier (charges prepaid); or (c) five (5) Business Days following mailing by certified or registered mail, postage prepaid and return receipt requested. Unless another address is specified in writing, such notices to Licensor or Licensee shall be sent to the addresses indicated below:

 

15.5 Amendment. No amendment, modification, or supplement of any provision of this Agreement shall be valid or effective unless made in writing and signed by a duly authorized officer of each Party.

 

15.6 Waiver. No provision of this Agreement shall be waived by any act, omission or knowledge of a Party or its agents or employees except by an instrument in writing expressly waiving such provision and signed by a duly authorized officer of the waiving Party.

 

15.7 Counterparts; Electronic Delivery. This Agreement may be executed simultaneously in two counterparts, either of which need not contain the signature of more than one Party but both such counterparts taken together shall constitute one and the same agreement. Signatures to this Agreement transmitted by facsimile, by email in “portable document format” (“.pdf”), or by any other electronic means intended to preserve the original graphic and pictorial appearance of this Agreement shall have the same effect as physical delivery of the paper document bearing original signature.

 

15.8 Governing Law; Dispute Resolution.

(a) This Agreement shall be governed by and interpreted in accordance with the substantive laws of the State of New York, U.S.A. without regard to its or any other jurisdiction’s choice of law rules that would result in the application of the laws of any jurisdiction other than the State of New York, U.S.A.

 

(b) Except as otherwise provided in this Agreement, in the event of any dispute, controversy, or claim (“Dispute”) between the Parties in connection with this Agreement, the construction hereof, or the rights, duties or liabilities of either Party under this Agreement, the Parties shall first attempt in good faith to resolve such Dispute by negotiation and consultation between themselves. In the event that such Dispute is not resolved on an informal basis within ten (10) Business Days after one Party provides notice to the other Party of such Dispute, either Party providing such notice may, by written notice to the other Party refer such Dispute to the other Party for attempted resolution by good faith negotiation by the Chief Executive Officers or President of Licensor and the Chief Executive Officer, President or an Executive Vice President within thirty (30) days after such notice is received. In the event that any such Dispute is not resolved under the foregoing provisions, each Party may, at its sole discretion, seek resolution of such Dispute in accordance with Section 15.8(c). Any Disputes of the type described in Section 3.2(i) shall first be subject to the dispute resolution mechanism set forth in Section 3.2(i) before being subject to this Section 15.8.

 

(c) In the event such officers of the Parties are not able to resolve any such Dispute, either Party may at any time after such thirty (30) day period submit such Dispute to be finally settled by arbitration administered in accordance with the Commercial Arbitration Rules of the American Arbitration Association (“AAA”) in effect at the time of submission. The arbitration shall be heard and determined by three (3) arbitrators. Each such Party shall each appoint one arbitrator and the third arbitrator shall be selected by the two Party-appointed arbitrators, or, failing agreement within thirty (30) days following the date of receipt by the respondent of the claim, by the AAA. Such arbitration shall take place in New York, NY. The arbitration award so given shall be a final and binding determination of the dispute, shall be fully enforceable in any court of competent jurisdiction, and shall not include any damages expressly prohibited by Section 12.1. The Parties agree that all applicable statutes of limitation and time-based defenses (such as estoppel and laches) shall be tolled while the dispute resolution procedures set forth in this Section 15.8(c) are pending.

 

(d) Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, nothing in this Section 15.8 shall preclude either Party from seeking interim or provisional relief, including a temporary restraining order, preliminary injunction or other interim equitable relief concerning a Dispute, including in a court of law, if necessary to protect the interests of such Party. This Section 15.8 shall be specifically enforceable.

 

(e) Notwithstanding the foregoing, any disputes regarding the validity, scope or enforceability of Patent Rights or trademarks shall be submitted to a court of competent jurisdiction in the territory in which such rights apply.

 

15.10 Severability. Whenever possible, each provision of this Agreement shall be interpreted in such manner as to be effective and valid under Applicable Laws, but if any provision of this Agreement is held to be prohibited by or invalid under Applicable Laws, such provision shall be ineffective only to the extent of such prohibition or invalidity, without invalidating the remainder of this Agreement. In the event of such invalidity, the Parties shall seek to agree on an alternative enforceable provision that preserves the original purpose of this Agreement.

 

15.11 Compliance with Applicable Laws. Each Party will comply with all Applicable Laws in performing its obligations and exercising its rights hereunder.

 

15.12 Remedies. The exercise of any remedies hereunder shall be cumulative and in addition to and not in limitation of any other remedies available to such Party at law or in equity.

 

15.13 Force Majeure. Neither Party shall be liable for delay or failure in the performance of any of its obligations hereunder if such delay or failure is due to causes beyond its reasonable control, including, without limitation, acts of nature, fires, earthquakes, strikes and labor disputes, acts of war, terrorism, or civil unrest (“Force Majeure”); provided that the affected Party promptly notifies the other Party and further provided that the affected Party shall use its commercially reasonable efforts to avoid or remove such causes of non-performance and to mitigate the effect of such occurrence, and shall continue performance with the utmost dispatch whenever such causes are removed. In the event any such Force Majeure event continues for three (3) months or more, the unaffected Party shall have the right to terminate this Agreement, effective as of the date of delivery of notice, which notice shall not be delivered prior to the end of such three (3) month period.

 

15.14 Interpretation. Each Party represents that it has been represented by legal counsel in connection with this Agreement and acknowledges that it has participated in the drafting hereof. In interpreting and applying the terms and provisions of this Agreement, the Parties agree that no presumption will apply against the Party which drafted such terms and provisions.

 

15.15 Construction. In construing this Agreement, unless expressly specified otherwise: (a) unless otherwise specifically provided, any references to Articles, Sections, Exhibits, Schedules, and Appendices are to articles in, sections of, and exhibits, schedules and appendices to, this Agreement; (b) except where the context otherwise requires, use of either gender includes the other gender and use of the singular includes the plural and vice versa; (c) headings and titles are for convenience only and do not affect the construction or interpretation of this Agreement; (d) any list or examples following the word “including” shall be interpreted without limitation to the generality of the preceding words; (e) the words “herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder”, and words of similar import, shall be construed to refer to this Agreement in its entirety and not to any particular provision hereof; (f) except where the context otherwise requires, the word “or” is used in the inclusive sense; (g) all references to “dollars” or “$” herein shall mean US Dollars; (h) any definition of or reference to any agreement, instrument or other document herein shall be construed as referring to such agreement, instrument or other document as from time to time amended, supplemented or otherwise modified (subject to any restrictions on such amendments, supplements or modifications set forth herein or therein), (i) any reference to any Applicable Laws herein shall be construed as referring to such Applicable Laws as from time to time enacted, repealed or amended, and (j) any reference herein to any person or entity shall be construed to include the person’s or entity’s successors and assigns.

 

15.16 Entire Agreement of the Parties. This Agreement and the exhibits attached hereto constitute and contain the complete, final, and exclusive understanding and agreement of the Parties, and cancel and supersede any and all prior and contemporaneous negotiations, correspondence, understandings, and agreements, whether oral or written, between the Parties respecting the subject matter hereof, including without limitation the Confidentiality Agreement, and neither Party shall be liable or bound to any other Party in any manner by any representations, warranties, covenants, or agreements except as specifically set forth herein or therein. Nothing in this Agreement, express or implied, is intended to confer upon either Party, other than the Parties and their respective successors and assigns, any rights, remedies, obligations, or liabilities under or by reason of this Agreement, except as expressly provided herein. To the extent that anything set forth in an exhibit attached hereto conflicts with the terms of this Agreement, the terms of this Agreement shall control.

 

KASAN_기술이전, 라이선스 등 영문계약서에 사용되는 일반조항 GENERAL PROVISIONS 계약조항 샘플.p

 

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작성일시 : 2019. 5. 18. 10:00
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  1. 영문계약서 2019.08.29 21:35 [댓글주소] [수정/삭제] [댓글에 댓글달기]

    영문계약서 때문에 골치아픈데
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26.1 Relationship of Parties. Each of the parties hereto is an independent contractor and nothing in this Agreement is intended or shall be deemed to constitute a partnership, agency, employer-employee or joint venture relationship between the parties. No party shall have the right to, and each party agrees not to purport to, incur any debts or make any commitments or contracts for the other.

 

26.2 Compliance with Law. Each of the parties shall comply with all applicable international, federal, state and local laws, rules and regulations, including, but not limited to, import/export restrictions, laws, rules and regulations governing product quality and safety and patent, copyright and trade secret protection.

 

26.3 Arbitration.

 

(a) Procedure. The parties recognize that bona fide disputes may arise which relate to the parties’ rights and obligations under this Agreement. The parties agree that except as provided in Section 7.4, any such dispute shall be resolved by alternative dispute resolution in accordance with the procedure set forth in Exhibit F.

 

(b) Confidentiality of Proceedings. All arbitration proceedings hereunder shall be confidential and the arbitrator(s) shall issue appropriate protective orders to safeguard each party’s Confidential Information. Except as required by law, no party shall make (or instruct the arbitrator(s) to make) any public announcement with respect to the proceedings or decision of the arbitrator(s) without prior written consent of the other party.

 

(c) Binding Effect. The provisions of this Section 12.3 shall survive any expiration or termination of this Agreement, and shall be severable and binding on the parties hereto, notwithstanding that any other provision of this Agreement may be held or declared to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable.

 

26.4 Force Majeure. Neither party shall be liable for failure to perform, or delay in the performance of, its obligations under this Agreement (other than payment obligations) when such failure or delay is caused by an event of force majeure. For purposes of this Agreement, an event of force majeure means any event or circumstance beyond the reasonable control of the affected party, including but not limited to, war, insurrection, riot, fire, flood or other unusual weather condition, explosion, act of God, peril of the sea, strike, lockout or other industrial disturbance, sabotage, embargo, act of governmental authority, compliance with governmental order or national defense requirements, or inability to obtain fuel, power, raw materials, labor or transportation facilities. A failure of supply by CyDex’s supplier shall only be deemed an event of force majeure affecting CyDex if caused by a force majeure event affecting such supplier. If, due to any event of force majeure, either party shall be unable to fulfill its obligations under this Agreement (other than payment obligations), the affected party shall immediately notify the other party of such inability and of the period during which such inability is expected to continue and the time for performance [*].

 

26.6 Notices. Any notice, request, or communication under this Agreement shall be effective only if it is in writing and personally delivered; sent by certified mail, postage pre-paid; facsimile with receipt confirmed; or by nationally recognized overnight courier with signature required, addressed to the parties at the addresses stated below or such other persons and/or addresses as shall be furnished in writing by any party in accordance with this Section 12.6. Unless otherwise provided, all notices shall be sent:

 

12.8 Use of Name; Publicity. No party shall use the name, trademark, trade name or logo of the other party, its Affiliates or their respective employee(s) in any publicity, promotion, news release or public disclosure relating to this Agreement or its subject matter, without the prior express written permission of the other party, except as may be required by law or the rules of NASDAQ or the New York Stock Exchange. In the event of a required public announcement, the party making such announcement shall provide the other party with a copy of the proposed text before such announcement sufficiently in advance of the scheduled release of such announcement to afford such other party a reasonable opportunity to review and comment upon the proposed text and the timing of such disclosure.

 

12.9 Governing Law. This Agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York (without giving effect to any conflicts of law principles that require the application of the law of a different state). The United Nations Convention on the International Sale of Goods is hereby expressly excluded.

 

12.10 Entire Agreement; Amendment. This Agreement, together with the Quality Agreement, constitutes the entire agreement of the parties relating to the subject matter hereof and thereof and supersedes any and all prior or contemporaneous agreements, written or oral, between CyDex (and/or any of its Affiliates) and Hospira (and/or any of its Affiliates) relating to the subject matter hereof and thereof; provided, that any confidentiality/nonuse provisions of any prior agreement are not superseded and will remain in effect solely with respect to information provided under the terms of such prior agreement that is not subsequently provided to a Party under the terms of this Agreement. If the Quality Agreement contains terms or conditions inconsistent with the terms of this Agreement, the terms of the Quality Agreement will control and prevail solely with respect to quality issues, and the terms of this Agreement shall control and prevail for all other matters. This Agreement cannot be amended except by way of an express writing signed by both parties.

 

12.11 Binding Effect. This Agreement shall be binding upon, and the rights and obligations hereof shall apply to, CyDex and Hospira and any successor(s) and permitted assigns. The name of a party appearing herein shall be deemed to include the names of such party’s successors and permitted assigns to the extent necessary to carry out the intent of this Agreement.

 

12.12 Waiver. The rights of either party under this Agreement may be exercised from time to time, singularly or in combination, and the exercise of one or more such rights shall not be deemed to be a waiver of any one or more of the others. No waiver of any breach of a term, provision or condition of this Agreement shall be deemed to have been made by either party unless such waiver is addressed in writing and signed by an authorized representative of that party. The failure of either party to insist upon the strict performance of any of the terms, provisions or conditions of this Agreement, or to exercise any option contained in this Agreement, shall not be construed as a waiver or relinquishment for the future of any such term, provision, condition or option or the waiver or relinquishment of any other term, provision, condition or option.

 

12.13 Severability. If any provision of this Agreement is determined by a final and binding court or arbitration judgment to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable to any extent, such provision shall not be not affected or impaired up to the limits of such invalidity, illegality or unenforceability; the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions of this Agreement shall not be affected or impaired in any way; and the parties agree to negotiate in good faith to replace such invalid, illegal and unenforceable provision (or portion of provision) with a valid, legal and enforceable provision that achieves, to the greatest lawful extent under this Agreement, the economic, business and other purposes of such invalid, illegal or unenforceable provision (or portion of provision).

 

12.14 Assignment. Neither party may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party; provided, however, that either party may assign this Agreement, in whole or in part, without such consent, to an Affiliate of such party or to any Third Party successor by merger or acquisition or by divestiture or spin-off of substantially all of the business to which this Agreement relates, upon written notice to the other party of any such assignment and, in the case of an assignment to an Affiliate, such party hereby guarantees the performance of any such Affiliate, and, in the case of a Third Party assignment, such Third Party shall assume the obligations of the assigning party under this Agreement. No assignment shall relieve any party of responsibility for the performance of any obligation, which such party may have or incur hereunder.

 

12.15 Third Party Beneficiaries. The terms and provisions of this Agreement are intended solely for the benefit of each party hereto and their respective Affiliates, related Indemnified Parties (as set forth in Section 9), successors or permitted assigns and it is not the intention of the parties to confer third-party beneficiary rights upon any other person, including without limitation Sublicensees.

 

12.17 Headings. The descriptive headings of this Agreement are for convenience only, and shall be of no force or effect in construing or interpreting any of the provisions of this Agreement.

 

12.18 Interpretation. The language used in this Agreement is the language chosen by the parties to express their mutual intent, and no provision of this Agreement will be interpreted for or against any party because that party or its attorney drafted the provision.

 

12.19 Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in counterparts, each of which shall constitute an original document, but both of which shall constitute one and the same instrument.

 

KASAN_국제계약서에 통상 들어가는 일반조항 GENERAL PROVISIONS 사례 – 제약회사 신제품 라이선스

 

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작성일시 : 2019. 5. 10. 10:00
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-- 부정경쟁방지법 제2조 제1()목 부정경쟁행위 일반규정의 보충적 지위 - ()목의 상품형태 모방 부정경쟁행위와 관계 판결 -- 

 

부정경쟁방지법 제2조 제1 ()목은 "타인이 제작한 상품의 형태(형상, 모양, 색체, 광택 또는 이들을 결합한 것을 말하며, 시제품 또는 상품소개서상의 형태를 포함한다)를 모방한 상품을 양도, 대여 또는 이를 위한 전시를 하거나 수입, 수출하는 행위"를 부정경쟁행위로 규정하고 있습니다.

 

대법원 2013. 3. 29. 선고 201020044 판결에서 "모방이란 타인의 상품형태에 의거하여 이와 실질적으로 동일한 형태의 상품을 만들어 내는 것을 말하며, 한편 형태의 변경이 있는 경우 실질적으로 동일한 형태에 해당하는지는 당해 변경의 내용, 정도, 착상의 난이도, 변경에 의한 형태적 효과 등을 종합적으로 고려하여 판단하여 한다"고 그 판단기준을 제시하였습니다. 

 

앞서 소개한 서울중앙지방법원 2015. 9. 23. 선고 2015가합519087 판결은 문제된 개량한복 제품의 형태가 실질적으로 동일하여 모방에 해당한다고 판결하였습니다. 또한, "선발 제품은 기존의 전통적 한복 형태를 다소 개량한 것에 불과해 다소 유사한 제품을 제조, 판매했다고 하더라도 모방에 해당하지 않는다"는 후발회사의 주장에 대해 "부정경쟁방지법의 취지가 식별력이나 주지성 획득 여부와 상관없이 라이프사이클이 짧은 상품을 강력히 보호하기 위한데 있다는 점을 고려할 때 모방의 대상인 타인의 제품이 반드시 독창적일 필요는 없다"고 판결하였습니다.

 

한편, ()목의 보호기간은 상품의 형태가 갖추어진 날부터 3년으로 제한됩니다. 선발회사는 3년이 경과된 이후까지 후발제품의 판매금지청구를 하면서 ()목의 부정경쟁행위에도 해당한다는 주장을 하였습니다.

 

법원은 이에 대해, "()목은 ()목 내지 ()목의 9가지 유형의 부정경쟁행위를 한정적으로 열거하고 있을 뿐이어서 기술의 발전과 시장의 변화에 따라 날로 다양해지는 새로운 유형의 부정한 경쟁행위에 대처하기 어렵다는 인식하에, 9가지 유형에 해당하지 않더라도 규제할 필요가 있다고 보이는 정도의 중한 법익 침해행위가 있을 때에는 민법상 불법행위에 해당한다고 본 대법원 판례를 입법화한 부정경쟁행위의 일반규정이다. 위와 같은 입법취지 및 규정체계 등에 비추어 보면, ()목은 ()목 내지 ()목에 규정하고 있는 행위유형과는 다른, 종래의 지식재산권 관련 제도 내에서 예상할 수 없어 기존 법률로는 미처 포섭할 수 없었던 유형의 행위로서 ()목 내지 ()목의 부정경쟁행위에 준하는 것으로 평가할 수 있는 행위에 관하여만 보충적으로 적용되는 규정으로 봄이 상당하다."라고 판시하였습니다.

 

()목이 적용되는 상품형태모방 부정경쟁행위에 대해 ()목 규정이 중첩적으로 적용되지 않는다는 입장입니다. 따라서 선발업체의 3년 이후 모방제품에 대한 판매행위금지청구를 기각하여 모방제품의 장래 판매를 허용한 것입니다.

 

부정경쟁방지법 제2조 제1 ()목은 2014. 1. 31. 시행되었고 현재 하급심 판결만이 나온 상황입니다. 1심 판결에서 밝힌 '일반조항 ()목은 보충적으로 적용되는 규정'이라는 입장이 앞으로 상급심과 대법원에서 그대로 지지될지 주목됩니다.

 

첨부: 서울중앙지방법원 2015. 9. 23. 선고 2015가합519087 판결

서울중앙지법 2015가합519087 판결.pdf

 

작성일시 : 2015. 12. 15. 09:26
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-- 창작성, 독창성 없는 제품 등 지식재산권법상 보호받기 어려운 대상 모방행위와부정경쟁방지법상 부정경쟁행위 ()목 또는 ()목 규정을 활용한 권리보호 방안  --

 

지식재산권법은 문화적 창작물 또는 기술적 창작물을 보호대상으로 합니다. 창작성, 독창성이 없는 제품은 전통적인 지식재산권법제로는 그 모방행위를 금지할 수 없습니다. 그런데, 최근 이와 같은 모방행위에 대한 법적 분쟁이 빈발합니다.

 

예를 들어, 최근 언론매체에서는 아래와 같은 목도리 디자인 모방을 보도하면서, 보호방안이 전혀 없는 것처럼 설명합니다. 부정경쟁방지법상 부정경쟁행위 조항 중 ()목이나 ()목을 잘 활용하면 모방제품의 제조, 판매금지뿐만 아니라 손해배상청구까지 가능할 수 있다는 점을 잘 모르는 것 같습니다.

 

 

 

최근 서울중앙지법 2015가합519087 판결도 실무상 지침이 될 좋은 사례입니다. 위 사건에서 문제된 제품은 한복제품인데, 후발업체는 "선발업체 제품은 기존의 전통적 한복 형태를 다소 개량한 것에 불과해 다소 유사한 제품을 제조, 판매했다고 하더라도 모방에 해당하지 않는다"고 주장하였습니다. 그러나 법원은 "부정경쟁방지법의 취지가 식별력이나 주지성 획득 여부와 상관없이 라이프사이클이 짧은 상품을 강력히 보호하기 위한데 있다는 점을 고려할 때 모방의 대상인 타인의 제품이 반드시 독창적일 필요는 없다"고 판시하였습니다. 종래 다수 판결의 확고한 입장입니다.

 

앞서 블로그에서 전통적 지식재산권법의 보호대상에 해당하지 않거나 침해요건을 충족하지 못한 경우에도 2014. 1. 31. 시행 부정경쟁방지법 제2조 제1 ()목의 부정경쟁행위 일반조항에 따라 권리보호를 받을 수도 있다는 점을 설명드렸습니다.

 

, "그 밖에 타인의 상당한 투자나 노력으로 만들어진 성과 등을 공정한 상거래 관행이나 경쟁질서에 반하는 방법으로 자신의 영업을 위하여 무단으로 사용함으로써 타인의 경제적 이익을 침해하는 행위"를 부정경쟁행위의 한 유형으로 규정하고, 그에 따라 부정경쟁방지법에서 제공하는 부정경쟁행위 금지청구권, 손해배상청구권, 신용회복청구권 등 권리구제수단을 인정합니다.

 

그 논리를 조금 확장하면 전통적인 지식재산권법에서는 보호대상 요건을 충족하지 못하거나 아니면 비침해 행위로 판정된 경우에도 상황에 따라서는 부정경쟁방지법상의 불법행위 책임을 추궁할 수 있다는 의미입니다. 손해배상뿐만 아니라 금지청구까지 가능한 보충적 일반조항의 도입으로 실무상 매우 중대한 영향을 미칠 것으로 예상됩니다.

 

현재 하급심 판결만 있을 뿐 대법원 판결까지 난 것은 아니므로 불명확한 점이 많습니다. 그럼에도 실무적 관점에서 그 실효성과 리스크 등을 신중하게 검토해 보아야 할 것입니다.

 

작성일시 : 2015. 12. 11. 16:41
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-- 지식재산권법상 보호대상 또는 금지행위 유형에 해당하지 않는 경우에도 민법상 불법행위책임 또는 부정경쟁방지법 ()목의 부정경쟁행위 책임 적용여부 -- 

 

최근 대법원 판결뿐만 아니라 하급심 판결에서 지식재산권법상 보호대상에 해당하지 않거나 또는 침해금지 대상에 해당하지 않는 행위 유형을 민법상 불법행위 또는 부정경쟁방지법 제2조 제1 ()목의 일반조항의 부정경쟁행위로 규율하여, 손해배상책임은 물론 침해금지청구까지 받아들인 사례가 있습니다.

 

앞서 블로그에서 소개한 것처럼, 대법원은 저작권법 보호대상이 아니거나 저작권 침해에 해당하지 않음에도 불구하고, “경쟁자가 상당한 노력과 투자에 의하여 구축한 성과물을 상도덕이나 공정한 경쟁질서에 반하여 자신의 영업을 위하여 무단으로 이용함으로써 경쟁자의 노력과 투자에 편승하여 부당하게 이익을 얻고 경쟁자의 법률상 보호할 가치가 있는 이익을 침해하는 행위는 부정한 경쟁행위로서 민법상 불법행위에 해당한다라고 권리보호의 필요성을 인정하였습니다.

 

신설조항 부정경쟁방지법 제2조 제1호 차목은, 위 대법원 판결취지를 거의 그대로 반영하여, "그 밖에 타인의 상당한 투자나 노력으로 만들어진 성과 등을 공정한 상거래 관행이나 경쟁질서에 반하는 방법으로 자신의 영업을 위하여 무단으로 사용함으로써 타인의 경제적 이익을 침해하는 행위"를 부정경쟁행위의 유형으로 규정하였습니다. 그에 따라 부정경쟁방지법에서 제공하는 부정경쟁행위 금지청구권, 손해배상청구권, 신용회복청구권 등 권리구제수단을 제공합니다.

 

그렇다면, 논리적으로 조금만 확장하면 지식재산권법에서 보호대상 요건을 충족하지 못하거나 아니면 비침해 행위로 판정된 경우에도 상황에 따라서는 민법상 일반 불법행위 책임 및 부정경쟁방지법 ()목에 따른 부정경쟁법상 책임을 추궁할 수 있다는 의미입니다.

 

권리보호를 구하는 측에서는 환영할 일이지만, 반대로 타인과 법적 분쟁의 소지 없이 자유롭게 실시할 수 있는 영역을 명확하게 확인하기 어려운 불안한 상황에 처하는 문제점이 있습니다. 자유경쟁이 보장되는 경계선을 명확하게 제시하지 않는다면 상당한 혼란을 초래할 수도 있습니다.

 

구체적 사례에 관한 판결이 축적되고 많은 학술논문이 쌓인 이후에나 실무적 지침이 될만한 경계선을 확인할 수 있을 것입니다. 그 정도에 이르기까지는 아직도 상당한 시간이 필요하다고 생각합니다.

 

위와 같은 문제점에 주목하여 판례를 상세하게 검토하고 미국의 경우를 소개한 학술논문을 첨부해 드립니다. 좋은 참고자료로 생각됩니다.

 

첨부: 논문

논문 - 차목 일반조항.pdf

작성일시 : 2015. 12. 9. 09:34
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-- 지식재산권 보호요건 또는 침해요건을 갖추지 못한 경우에도 민법상 불법행위책임 및 부정경쟁방지법상 부정경쟁행위 책임 인정 --

 

대법원은 저작권법 보호대상이 아니거나 저작권 침해에 해당하지 않음에도 불구하고 종종 권리보호의 필요성을 인정하여 왔습니다. 권리보호 이유로, “경쟁자가 상당한 노력과 투자에 의하여 구축한 성과물을 상도덕이나 공정한 경쟁질서에 반하여 자신의 영업을 위하여 무단으로 이용함으로써 경쟁자의 노력과 투자에 편승하여 부당하게 이익을 얻고 경쟁자의 법률상 보호할 가치가 있는 이익을 침해하는 행위는 부정한 경쟁행위로서 민법상 불법행위에 해당한다라고 판시하였습니다.

 

그 논리를 조금 확장하면 지식재산권법에서는 보호대상 요건을 충족하지 못하거나 아니면 비침해 행위로 판정된 경우에도 상황에 따라서는 민법 제750조에 의한 일반 불법행위 책임을 추궁할 수 있다는 의미입니다.

 

신설된 부정경쟁방지법 제2조 제1호 차목은 위와 같은 대법원 판결취지를 거의 그대로 반영한 일반조항으로 평가됩니다. , "그 밖에 타인의 상당한 투자나 노력으로 만들어진 성과 등을 공정한 상거래 관행이나 경쟁질서에 반하는 방법으로 자신의 영업을 위하여 무단으로 사용함으로써 타인의 경제적 이익을 침해하는 행위"를 부정경쟁행위의 한 유형으로 규정하고, 그에 따라 부정경쟁방지법에서 제공하는 부정경쟁행위 금지청구권, 손해배상청구권, 신용회복청구권 등 권리구제수단을 인정합니다.

 

종래 대법원 판결에서 저작권 등 지식재산권 침해행위에 해당하지 않는 경우에는 아무 책임이 없다고 판결하지 않고, 경우에 따라서는 민법상 불법행위 책임을 물을 수 있다고 한 취지와 대법원 판결문과 거의 유사한 표현으로 입법된 부정경쟁방지법 제2조 제1호 차목은 그 취지도 공유한다고 볼 수 있을 것입니다. 참고로 특허청에서 국회에 제출한 개정이유에서도 "기술의 변화 등으로 나타나는 새롭고 다양한 유형의 부정경쟁행위에 적절하게 대응하기 위하여 신설된 것"이라고 적시하고 있습니다.

 

그렇다면 지식재산권 침해행위에 해당하지 않는 경우에도 그 다음 ()목의 부정경쟁행위에 해당하는지 검토하여 해당하는 경우 손해배상 책임뿐만 아니라 부정경쟁행위로 판단되는 영업행위도 금지할 수 있습니다. 손해배상뿐만 아니라 금지청구까지 가능한 보충적 일반조항의 도입으로 실무상 매우 중대한 영향을 미칠 것으로 예상됩니다.

 

작성일시 : 2015. 12. 1. 17:30
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